My interests lie in 19th- and 20th-century developments in technology, especially electricity, electronics, radio, computing, and tabulating, concentrating on the institutional aspects of innovation and product development. My particular focus in research is on developments after 1945.
Ph.D. (History of Science and Technology), University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1974
M.S. (Physics), University of Vermont, Burlington, 1962
B.S. (Physics), Providence College, Providence, Rhode Island, 1959
Recent Professional Positions
Professor Emeritus, University of Minnesota
Director, Charles Babbage Institute for the History of Information Technology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1981-1993; 1999-2006
ERA Land-Grant Chair in History of Technology, 1989-1993; 1999-2006
Professor, History of Science and Technology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1995-2005
Professor, Department of Computer Science, 1995-2005
IBM Rochester: A Half Century of Innovation, with Jeffrey R. Yost, Rochester, Minn.: IBM, 2006.
Computers and Commerce: A Study of Technology and Management at Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, Engineering Research Associates, and Remington Rand, 1946-1957, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005.
History of Computing: Software Issues, coedited with Ulf Hashagen and Reinhard Keil-Slawik, New York: Springer, 2002.
Transforming Computer Technology: Information Processing for the Pentagon, 1962-1986, with Judy E. O’Neill, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
“New Engineering Companies and the Evolution of the United States Computer Industry,” Business and Economic History, 22, Second Series, (1993): 181-193.
“High-Technology Calculation in the Early 20th Century: Punched Card Machinery in Business and Government,” Technology and Culture, 31 (October 1990): 753-779.
“The origins of the electronics industry on the Pacific Coast,” IEEE Proceedings, 64 no. 9 (September 1976): 1314-22.