CBI: Software History Bibliography, A-B
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CHARLES BABBAGE INSTITUTE
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Software History Bibliography

update: August 1, 2003

A - B

Abbate, Janet. “The Electrical Century: Inventing the Web.” Proceedings of the IEEE 87 (November 1999): 1999-2002.

Abbate, Janet. “From ARPANET to Internet: A History of ARPA-Sponsored Computer Networks, 1968-1988.” Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1994.

Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.

Abdel-Hamid, Tarek K. and Stuart E. Madnick. “Lessons Learned from Modeling the Dynamics of Software Development.” Communications of the ACM 32 (December 1989): 1426-38.

Abell, V.A., et al. “Scheduling in a General Purpose Operating System.” In Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference, 89-96. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1970.

Abrahams, Paul W. “The Lisp 2 Programming Language and System.” In Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference, 661-76. Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books, 1966.

Abramson, Norman. “The ALOHA System: Another Alternative for Computer Communications.” In Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference, 281-96. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1970.

Abramson, Norman. “Packet Switching with Satellites.” In Proceedings of the 1973 National Computer Conference and Exposition, 695-702. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1973.

Academic Computing Collection, CBI 61. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Ackerman, Eugene. “Interactive Languages in Health Computer Sciences at the University of Minnesota.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 200-1. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1972.

Adam, Alison Evelyn. Artificial Knowing: Gender and the Thinking Machine. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Adam, Alison Evelyn. “Constructions of Gender in the History of Artificial Intelligence.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 18 (Fall 1996): 47-56.

Adam, Alison Evelyn. “What Can the History of AI Learn from the History of Science?” AI & Society 4 (October-December 1990): 232-41.

Adams, C.W. “Developments in Programming Research.” In Proceedings of the Eastern Computer Conference, 75-9. New York: Institute of Radio Engineers, Inc., 1955.

Adams, E.N. “Reflections on the Design of a CAI Operating System.” In Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, 419-24. Washington, D.C.: Thompson Books, 1967.

Adams, Jeanne. “Institutionalization of FORTRAN.” Annals of the History of Computing 6 (January 1984): 28-40.

Adams, Scott. “The MEDLARS System.” Federation Proceedings 22 (1963): 1018-21.

ADAPSO. 25 Years. Arlington, VA: ADAPSO, 1986.

“ADAPSO Files Brief in Apple Software Case.” Computerworld 16 (November 8, 1982): 125.

Adler, Jerry. “The eBay Way of Life.” Newsweek 139 (June 17, 2002): 51-60.

Adrion, W. Richards, et al. “Validation, Verification, and Testing of Computer Software.” ACM Computing Surveys 14 (June 1982): 159-92.

“The Advent of Structured Programming.” EDP Analyzer 12 (June 1974): 1-14.

Agrawala, Ashok K. “On Adaptive Operating Systems in Multi-Programming Environments.” IEEE Conference on Decision and Control Including the 12th Symposium on Adaptive Processes, 92-3. New York: IEEE, 1973.

Agrawala, Ashok K., et al. “An Approach to the Work Load Characterization Problem.” Computer 9 (June 1976): 18-32.

Ahl, David H. “Can Computers Think?” Creative Computing 1 (March-April 1976): 20-24.

Ahl, David H. “Computer Games: History.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 357-60. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Aitken, Hugh G.J. and Robert B. Stoddard. “The History of Computers and Computer Languages: A Preliminary Bibliography.” Amherst, MA: Amherst College, 1983.

Akera, Atsushi. “Voluntarism and the Fruits of Collaboration: The IBM User Group, Share.” Technology and Culture 42 (October 2001): 710-36.

Alexander, Michael T. “Organization and Features of the Michigan Terminal System.” In Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, 585-91. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1972.

Aley, James. “The Theory That Made Microsoft.” Fortune (April 29, 1996): 23-4.

Alison, David K. Transcript of a Video History with Mr. Thomas M. Nies, Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Cincom Systems, Inc. Washington, DC: National Museum of American History, 1995.

Alleman, Frank H. and Olga Kennard. “The Cambridge Database of Molecular Structures.” Perspectives in Computing 3 (October 1983): 28-43.

Allen, C.D. “The Application of Formal Logic to Programs and Programming.” IBM Systems Journal 10 (1971): 2-38.

Allen, Frances E. “The History of Language Processor Technology in IBM.” IBM Journal of Research and Development 25 (September 1981): 535-48.

Allen, Frances E. “A Technological Review of the Fortran I Compiler.” 1982 National Computer Conference. AFIPS Conference Proceedings 51 (1982): 805-9.

Allen, James F. “Natural Language Processing.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1218-22. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Allen, Roy P. “OMNIBUS: A Large Data Base Management System.” In Proceedings of the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference, pt. 1, 157-69. Washington, D.C.: Thompson Books, 1968.

Allison, David K. “Preserving Software in History Museums: A Material Culture Approach.” In History of Computing: Software Issues, eds. Ulf Hashagen, Reinhard Keil-Slawik, and Arthur L. Norberg, 263-72. New York: Springer, 2002.

Allman, Eric and Michael Stonebraker. “Observations on the Evolution of a Software System.” IEEE Computer 15 (June 1982): 27-32.

Alt, Franz L. “The Standardization of Programming Languages.” In Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery, B2.1-B.2-6. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1964.

Alter, Steven L. “A Taxonomy of Decision Support Systems.” Sloan Management Review 19 (Fall 1977): 39-56.

Amarel, Saul. “Introduction to the Comtex Microfiche Edition of the Rutgers University Artificial Intelligence Research Reports: The History of Artificial Intelligence at Rutgers University.” AI Magazine 6 (1985): 192-202.

Amarel, Saul. “A Set of Goals and Approaches for Education in Computer Science.” In Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, 841-8. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1972.

Ambrosio, Johanna. “Value-Based Pricing Arrives.” Software News (December 1986): 20-4.

Amdahl, Gene M., et al. “Architecture of the IBM System/360.” IBM Journal of Research and Development (April 1964): 87-101.

Ames, Charles and Larry Polansky. “Computer Music.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 396-404. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Anchordoguy, Marie. “Japan’s Software Industry: A Failure of Institutions?” Research Policy 29 (2000): 391-408.

Anderson, A., Jr. “Forecast for Forecasting: Cloudy.” New York Times Magazine, December 29, 1974, p. 10-31.

Anderson, Alan R., ed. Minds and Machines. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Publishers, 1964.

Anderson, Robert H. “Programmable Automation: The Future of Computers in Manufacturing.” Datamation 18 (December 1972): 46-52.

Anderson, Ronald E. “Social Science Applications.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1587-90. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Anderson, Ronald E. and Coover Edwin R. “Wrapping up the Package: Critical Thoughts on Applications Software for Social Data Analysis.” Computers and the Humanities 7 (November, 1972): 81-95.

Andrews, Paul. How the Web Was Won: Microsoft from Windows to the Web. New York: Broadway Books, 1999.

“An Anomaly in the Patent System: The Uncertain Status of Computer Software.” Rutgers Journal of Computers, Technology, and the Law 8 (1981): 273-303.

Anonsen, Sheldon Lee. “Interactive Computer Graphics in Architecture.” Computers and Automation 19 (August 1970): 27-30.

Anschutz, Thomas A. “A Historical Perspective of CSTA.” IEEE Communications Magazine 34 (April 1996): 30-5.

Antonio, James F. and Ernest L. Enke. “New IRS Line on Software.” Datamation 16 (March 1970): 71-3.

“APL Language Summary.” ACM SIGPLAN Notices 13 (August 1978): 45.

Appel, Arthur. “The Notion of Quantitative Invisibility and the Machine Rendering of Solids.” In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM National Conference, 387-93. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1967.

Appel, Arthur. “Some Techniques for Shading Machine Renderings of Solids.” In Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, 37-45. Washington, D.C.: Thompson Books, 1968.

“Apollo Trainers.” Datamation 15 (December 1969): 252-3.

“Apple ‘Bytes’ Back: Copyrightability of Computer Programs: Apple Computer, Inc. v. Franklin Computer Corp.” University of Bridgeport Law Review 5 (1984): 363-92.

“Apple Computer, Inc. v. Franklin Computer Corporation Puts the Byte Back into Copyright Protection for Computer Programs.” Golden Gate Law Review 14 (Summer 1984): 281-308.

Appleton, Jon H. and Ronald C. Perera, eds. The Development and Practice of Electronic Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975.

Apselbaum, H.E. “Patenting the Computer Program: Problem Pending.” Bell Laboratories Record 51 (April 1973): 1.

Arbib, Michael A. Computers and the Cybernetic Society. New York: Academic Press, 1977.

Arbib, Michael A. The Metaphorical Brain: An Introduction to Cybernetics as Artificial Intelligence and Brain Theory. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1972.

Arbuckle, Edward C. and Emil J. Saxberg. “Improving Debugging Efficiency.” Datamation 8 (April 1962): 33-5.

Archibald, Julius A., Jr. and Meyer Katzper. “On the Preparation of Computer Science Professionals in Academic Institutions.” In Proceedings of the 1974 National Computer Conference and Exposition, 313-9. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1974.

Arden, Bruce W. “GAT: An Early Compiler and Operating System.” Annals of the History of Computing 8 (January 1986): 56-8.

Arden, Bruce W. and R. Graham. “On GAT and the Construction of Translators.” Communications of the ACM 2 (July 1959): 24-6.

Arden, Bruce W., et al. “MAD at Michigan.” Datamation 7 (December 1961): 27-8.

Arden, Bruce W., et al. Michigan Algorithmic Decoder: Reference Manual. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, November 1963.

Ardis, Mark A. “The Evolution of Wang Institute’s Master of Software Engineering Program.” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering SE-13 (November 1987): 1149-55.

“Are Computer Programs Ever Patentable? Did the Patent Office Win?” Jurimetrics Journal 13 (Summer 1973): 248-54.

Arganbright, Deane. “Spreadsheet.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1670-4. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Armer, Paul. Attitudes Toward Intelligent Machines. RAND Corporation, Report P-2114. September 30, 1960.

Armer, Paul. “Attitudes Toward Intelligent Machines.” Datamation 9 (March 1963): 34-8.

Armer, Paul. “Attitudes Toward Intelligent Machines.” Datamation 9 (April 1963): 29-32.

Armer, Paul. Interview by Robina Mapstone. April 16, 1973. Stanford, CA. Oral History 59 Charles Babbage Institute. University of Minnesota.

Armer, Paul. “SHARE: A Eulogy to Cooperative Effort.” Annals of the History of Computing 2 (April 1980): 122-9.

Armerding, G.W. Computer Software: The Evolution Within the Revolution. The Rand Corporation, July 1968.

Aron, Joel D. “Real-Time Systems in Perspective.” IBM Systems Journal 6 (1967): 49-67.

Asakura, Reiji. Revolutionaries at Sony: The Making of the Sony PlayStation and the Visionaries Who Conquered the World of Video Games. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Ashby, W. Ross. An Introduction to Cybernetics. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1956.

Ashenhurst, R.L. and R.H. Vonderohe. “A Hierarchical Network.” Datamation 21 (February 1975): 40-4.

Ashman, Allan. “Software Program Can Be Copyrighted.” American Bar Association Journal 69 (November 1983): 1750.

Asija, S. Pal. “Computer Program Patents and the First Patent for Software.” Computers and People 9-10 (September-October 1981): 7-10.

Asija, S. Pal. How to Protect Computer Programs: A Case History of the First Pure Software Patent. Allahabad, India: Law Publishers, 1983.

Aspray, William. “Advantages and Problems of Bringing Together the Historical and Engineering Communities to Study Software Engineering History.” In The History of Software Engineering, Dagstuhl Seminar Report no. 153, eds. William Aspray, et al.

Aspray, William. “An Annotated Bibliography of Secondary Sources on the History of Software.” Annals of the History of Computing 9 (1988): 291-343.

Aspray, William. “Command and Control, Documentation, and Library Science: The Origins of Information Science at the University of Pittsburgh.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 21 (October-December 1999): 4-20.

Aspray, William. John von Neumann and the Origins of Modern Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990.

Aspray, William and Bruce Bruemmer, eds. Guide to the Oral History Collection of the Charles Babbage Institute. Minneapolis, MN.: Charles Babbage Institute, 1986.

Aspray, William and Arthur Burks, eds. Papers of John von Neumann on Computing and Computer Theory. Los Angeles and Cambridge, MA: Tomash Publishers and MIT Press, 1987.

Aspray, William and Michael Gunderloy. “Early Computing and Numerical Analysis at the National Bureau of Standards.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 11 (Spring 1989): 3-12.

Association for Computing Machinery, Los Angeles Chapter Special Interest Group on Programming Languages, Working Group 4 PL/I Bulletin, 1966-67, CBI 35. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Astrahan, Morton M., et al. “System R: A Relational Approach to Database Management.” ACM Transactions on Database Systems 1 (June 1976): 97-137.

Astrahan, Morton M., et al. “System R: A Relational Data Base Management System.” IEEE Computer 12 (May 1979): 42-8.

Atchinson, Sandra D. “A Perfectly Good Word for WordPerfect: Gutsy.” Business Week (October 2, 1989): 79-80.

Athey, S. “Software Copying Policies of the Fortune 500.” Journal of Systems Management 40 (1989): 31-5.

Auerbach Associates Records, 1958-81, CBl 30. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Auerbach, Isaac L. “Eloge: Niels Ivar Bech, 1920-1975.” Annals of the History of Computing 6 (October 1984): 332-4.

Auerbach, Isaac L. Papers, 1948, 1957-1987, CBI 52. Charles Babbage Institute. University of Minnesota.

Aupperle, Eric M. “MERIT: Who, What, and Why.” Library Hi Tech 61 (1998): 15-36.

Auroux, A., et al. “DIAMAG: A Multi-Access System for On-Line ALGOL Programming.” In Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, 547-52. Washington, D.C.: Thompson Books, 1967.

Auslander, Marc A. and Joan F. Jaffe. “Functional Structure of IBM Virtual Storage Operating Systems - Part I: Influences of Dynamic Address Translation on Operating System Technology.” IBM Systems Journal 38 (1999): 340-353.

Auslander, Marc A. and H. Raymond Strong. “Systematic Recursion Removal.” Communications of the ACM 21 (1978): 127-34.

Auslander, Marc A., et al. “The Evolution of the MVS Operating System.” IBM Journal of Research and Development 25 (September 1981): 471-82.

Auslander, Marc A., et al. “Functional Structure of IBM Virtual Storage Operating Systems.” IBM Systems Journal 12 (1973): 368-411.

Austin, Charles J. “The MEDLARS System.” Datamation 10 (December 1964): 28-31.

Ayres, Ronald. “A Narrative History and Description of MOSIS Software.” Journal of Systems and Software 43 (1998): 67-82.

Baark, Erik. “Computer Software and Biotechnology in the PRC: Analytical Perspective on High-Tech Politics.” Issues & Studies 27 (1991): 70-93.

Baba, Yasunori, et al. “The User-Driven Evolution of the Japanese Software Industry: The Case of Customized Software for Mainframes.” In The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure, ed. David C. Mowery, 104-130. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Babcock, James D. “The ABC Time-Sharing System.” In Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, 301-2. Washington, D.C.: Thompson Books, 1967.

Baber, Robert L. “Comparison of Electrical ‘Engineering’ of Heaviside’s Times and Software ‘Engineering’ of Our Times.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing19 (October-December 1997): 5-17.

Baber, Robert L. Software Reflected: The Socially Responsible Programming of Our Computers. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co., 1982.

Bachman, Charles W. “The Programmer as Navigator.” Communications of the ACM 16 (November 1973): 653-8.

Bachman, Charles W. “MIACS: User of the First Generalized Data Base System?” Proceedings of Intercon 74. New York: IEEE Press, 1974.

Bachman, Charles W. Papers, 1951-1996, CBI 125. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Bachman, Charles W. “Software for Random Access Processing.” Datamation 11 (April 1965): 36-41.

Backus, John W. “Can Programming Be Liberated from the von Neumann Style? A Functional Style and Its Algebra of Programs.” Communications of the ACM 21 (August 1978): 613-41.

Backus, John W. “Early Days of FORTRAN.” Annals of the History of Computing 6 (January 1984): 15-27.

Backus, John W. “The History of FORTRAN I, II, and III.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 1 (July 1979): 21-37.

Backus, John W. “The History of FORTRAN I, II, and III.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (October-December 1998): 68-78.

Backus, John W. “The IBM 701 Speedcoding System.” Journal of the ACM 1 (January 1954): 4.

Backus, John W., interview by Charles E. Larson for Pioneers of Science and Technology Video Tape Project, January 3, 1984, San Francisco, CA, Oral History 262. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Backus, John W. “Programming in America in the 1950s: Some Personal Impressions.” In A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century, eds. Nicholas Metropolis, et al., 128-35. New York: Academic Press, 1980.

Backus, John W. “The Syntax and Semantics of the Proposed International Algebraic Language.” In Information Processing: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing, UNESCO, Paris, 15-20 June 1959. London: R. Oldenbourg, Munich, and Butterworth, 1959.

Backus, John W. and W.P. Heising. “FORTRAN.” IEEE Transactions on Electronic Computers EC-13 (August 1964): 382-5.

Backus, John W., et al. “The Fortran Automatic Coding System.” In Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference, 188-98. New York: Institute of Radio Engineers, 1957.

Backus, John W., et al. “Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 60.” Communications of the ACM 3 (1960): 125-32.

Bacon, Glenn. “Software.” Science 215 (February 12, 1982): 775-9.

Badger, G.F., Jr. “The Pitt Time-Sharing System for the IBM Systems 360.” In Proceedings of the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference, pt. 1, 1-6. Washington, D.C.: Thompson Books, 1968.

Baecker, Harry D. “An Early Example of Microprogramming.” In Canadian Information Processing Society, 318-22. Toronto: Canadian Information Processing Society, 1984.

Baecker, Harry D. “Software in Europe.” Datamation 14 (July 1968): 28-30.

Baecker, Ronald. “The Use of LOGO in a ‘Computers and Society’ Course.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 321. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1972.

Baily, James H., et al. “The Job Entry Subsystem of OS/VS1.” IBM Systems Journal 13 (1974): 253-69.

Baker, Charles L. “Adventures of a Blunder.” Annals of the History of Computing 4 (January 1982): 60-1.

Baker, Charles L. “JOSS: JOHNNIAC Open Shop System.” In History of Programming Languages, ed. Richard L. Wexelblat, 495-513. New York: Academic Press, 1981.

Baker, Charles L. “The PACT Coding System for the IBM Type 701.” Journal of the ACM 3 (October 1956): 272-8.

Baker, F. Terry. “Chief Programmer Team Management of Production Programming.” IBM Systems Journal 11 (1972): 56-73.

Baker, F. Terry. “Chief Programmer Teams.” Datamation 19 (December 1973): 58-61.

Baker, F. Terry. “Software Management Through Improved Programming Technology.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 286-7. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1975.

Baker, F. Terry. “System Quality Through Structured Programming.” In Proceedings of the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference, vol. 41, pt. 1, 339-43. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1972.

Baker, Richard H. Scuttle the Computer Pirates: Software Protection Schemes. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books, 1984.

Balderston, F.E., et al. “Computers in Banking and Marketing.” Science 195 (March 18, 1977): 1115-9.

Balzer, Robert M. “EXDAMS: Extendable Debugging and Monitoring Systems.” In Proceedings of the 1969 Spring Joint Computer Conference, 567-80. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1969.

Banerji, Ranan B. and George W. Ernst. “Limitations in Pattern Recognition and Problem Solving.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 28-38. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1972.

Banzhaf, John F. “Copyrighted Computer Programs: Some Questions and Answers.” Computers and Automation 14 (July 1965): 22-5.

Baran, Paul, interview by Judy O’Neill, March 5, 1990, Menlo Park, CA, Oral History 182. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Baran, Paul. On Distributed Communications Networks.  Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1962.

Baran, Paul. “Packet Switching.” In Fundamentals of Digital Switching, 2nd ed., ed. John C. McDonald, 193-230. Plenum Publishing Corp., 1990.

Bardini, Thierry. Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Writing Science). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000.

Bardini, Thierry. “Bridging the Gulfs: From Hypertext to Cyberspace.” Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 3 (September 1997): n.p.

Barnes, Bruce. “A History of Software Engineering at the National Science Foundation (A Personal View).” Software Engineering Notes : An Informal Newsletter of the Special Interest Committee on Software Engineering 23 (1998): 68.

Barnes, Bruce H. Oral History. September 26, 1990.

Barnett, G. Octo. “MUMPS: An Evolutionary Commentary.” Computers and Biomedical Research 14 (April 1981): 112-8.

Barnett, Nelson L. and A. Kenneth Fitzgerald. “Operating System for the 1410/7010.” Datamation 10 (May 1964): 39-42.

Barnhill, Robert E. “History of Computer Graphics: Personal Recollections.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (1998): 35-6.

Barr, Avron and Edward A. Feigenbaum. The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence. 3 vols. Stanford, CA: HeurisTech, 1982.

Barron, David W. Computer Operating Systems. London: Chapman and Hall, 1971.

Barron, David W. “Scripting Languages.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1553-7. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Barsky, Brian A. “Computer Graphics: A Personal History.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (1998): 36-7.

Barton, Robert S. “A New Approach to the Functional Design of a Digital Computer.” Annals of the History of Computing 9 (1987): 11-15.

Bashe, Charles J., et al. IBM’s Early Computers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986.

“Battle Against Software Piracy Begins.” New Scientist 92 (October 1, 1981): 24.

“Battling the Computer Pirates.” New York Times, January 5, 1981, pp. D1, D7.

Bauer, Friedrich L. “Between Zuse and Rutishauser: The Early Development of Digital Computing in Central Europe.” In A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century, eds. Nicholas Metropolis, et al., 505-24. New York: Academic Press, 1980.

Bauer, Friedrich L. “From Scientific Computation to Computer Science.” In The Skyline of Information Processing, ed. H. Zamanek, 57-71. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1972.

Bauer, Friedrich L. “Historical Remarks on Compiler Construction.” In Compiler Construction, 2nd ed., eds. Friedrich L. Bauer and J. Eickel, 603-21. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1976.

Bauer, Freidrich L. “Pioneering Work in Software During the 50s in Central Europe.” In History of Computing: Software Issues, eds. Ulf Hashagen, Reinhard Keil-Slawik, and Arthur L. Norberg, 11-22. New York: Springer, 2002.

Bauer, Friedrich L. “Software and Software Engineering.” SIAM Review 15 (April 1973, anniversary supplement): 469-480.

Bauer, Friedrich L. “Toward a Software Museum: Challenges and Opportunities.” In History of Computing: Software Issues, eds. Ulf Hashagen, Reinhard Keil-Slawik, and Arthur L. Norberg, 261-2. New York: Springer, 2002.

Bauer, Friedrich L. and H. Wossner. “The ‘Plankalkul’ of Konrad Zuse: A Forerunner of Today’s Programming Languages.” Communications of the ACM 15 (July 1972): 678-85.

Bauer, Walter F. “Computer Design from the Programmer’s Viewpoint.” In Proceedings of the Eastern Joint Computer Conference, 46-51. New York: American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1959.

Bauer, Walter F. “The Future of Automatic Programming.” Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Computer Applications Symposium, 133-46. Chicago: Armour Research Foundation, 1958.

Bauer, Walter F. “Informatics: An Early Software Company.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 18 (Summer 1996): 70-6.

Bauer, Walter F., interview by Robina Mapstone. May 14, 1973. Oral History 55. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Bauer, Walter F., interview by Arthur L. Norberg. May 16, 1983, Woodland Hills, CA, Oral History 61. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Bauer, Walter F. and Arthur M. Rosenberg. “Software: Historical Perspectives and Current Trends.” In Proceedings of the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference, vol. 41, pt. 2, 993-1007. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1972.

Baum, Claude. The System Builders: The Story of SDC. Santa Monica, CA: System Development Corporation, 1981.

Beech, David. “A Structural View of PL/I.” Computing Surveys 2 (March 1970): 33-64.

Belady, Laszlo A. “The Disappearance of the ‘Pure’ Software Industry.” ACM Computing Surveys 27 (March 1995): 17-8.

Belady, Laszlo A. “Evolved Software for the ‘80s.” IEEE Computer 12 (February 1979): 79-82.

Belady, Laszlo A. “A Study of Replacement Algorithms for a Virtual-Storage Computer.” IBM Systems Journal 5 (1966): 78-101.

Belady, Laszlo A., et al. “A Computer Graphics System for Block Diagram Problems.” IBM Systems Journal 10 (1971): 143-61.

Belady, Laszlo A., et al. “The IBM History of Memory Management Technology.” IBM Journal of Research and Development 25 (September 1981): 491-503.

Bell, P.C. and R. M. O’Keefe. “Visual Interactive Simulation: History, Recent Developments, and Major Issues.” Simulation SCS 49 (1987): 109-16.

Bellingall, Leigh. “Examining the CAD/CAM Revolution.” Computer Graphics World (May 1984): 69-78.

Bellinger, Robert. “Programmers Rally Against Alien Hires.” Electronic Engineering News (September 26, 1994): 139.

Beltz, George E. “NASDAQ: The Evolution of Automation in OTC Trading.” In Proceedings of the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference, vol. 41, pt. 2, 1009-15. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1972.

Bemer, Robert W. “A Checklist of Intelligence for Programming Systems.” Communications of the ACM 2 (March 1959): 8-13.

Bemer, Robert W., Computer Standards Collection, 1958-1978. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Bemer, Robert W. “Computing Prior to FORTRAN.” 1982 National Computer Conference. AFIPS Conference Proceedings 51 (1982): 811-6.

Bemer, Robert W. “Economics of Programming Production.” Datamation 12 (September 1966): 32-9.

Bemer, Robert W., interview by John A. N. Lee, February 23, 1982, Phoenix, AZ, Oral History 47. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Bemer, Robert W. “Nearly 650 Memories of the 650.” Annals of the History of Computing 8 (January 1986): 66-9.

Bemer, Robert W. “A Politico-Social History of ALGOL.” In Annual Review in Automatic Programming, vol. 5, eds. M. Halpern and C. Shaw, 151-237. New York: Penguin Press, 1969.

Bemer, Robert W. “The Status of Automatic Programming for Scientific Problems.” Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Computer Applications Symposium, 107-117. Chicago: Armour Research Foundation, 1957.

Bemer, Robert W. “Survey of Modern Programming Techniques.” Computer Bulletin (March 1961): 127-35.

Bemer, Robert W. “A View of the History of COBOL.” Honeywell Computer Journal 5 (1971): 130-5.

Bender, Gerhard, et al. “Function and Design of DOS/360 and TOS/360.” IBM Systems Journal 6 (1967): 2-21.

Benders, J.F. “Partitioning in Mathematical Programming.” Ph.D. diss., Utrecht, 1960.

Beniger, James R. and Dorothy L. Robyn. “Quantitative Graphics in Statistics: A Brief History.” American Statistician 32 (1978): 1-11.

Benington, Herbert D. “Production of Large Programs.” Annals of the History of Computing 5 (October 1983): 350-61.

Bennett, John M. “Comments on Programming the Manchester Mark I.” Annals of the History of Computing 3 (April 1981): 189-90.

Bequaert, F.C. “QUIP: A System for Automatic Program Generation.” In Proceedings of the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference, pt. 1, 611-6. Washington, D.C.: Thompson Books, 1968.

Beresford, John C.. “Projected Innovations in the Data Delivery System for the 1970 Census.” Demography 4 (1967): 753-758.

Berg, Helmut K. “Correctness Proof of Software Programs.” Scientific Honeyweller 4 (June 1983): 59-62.

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