CBI: Software History Bibliography, L-M
University of Minnesota
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CHARLES BABBAGE INSTITUTE
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Software History Bibliography

update: August 1, 2003

L - M

LaFrenz, Dale Eugene, interview by Judy E. O’Neill, April 13, 1995, Minneapolis, MN Oral History 315. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Lakha, Salim. “Growth of Computer Software Industry in India.” Economic and Political Weekly 25 (January 6, 1990): 53.

Lakha, Salim. “The New International Division of Labour and the Indian Computer Software Industry.” Modern Asian Studies 28 (May 1994): 381-408.

Lai, R. “From Estelle to Erlang.” Journal of Systems & Software 37 (June 1997):235-251.

Lakha, Salim. “The New International Division of Labour and the Indian Computer Software Industry.” Modern Asian Studies 28 (May 1994): 381-408.

Lamb, Vincent S., Jr. “All About Cross-Assemblers.” Datamation 19 (July 1973): 77-80.

Lambert, Frank P. “What’s So Hard About Software?” Datamation 11 (June 1965): 50-2.

Lammers, Susan, ed. Programmers at Work: Interviews With 19 Programmers Who Shaped the Computer Industry. Washington, D.C.: Tempus, Redmond, 1986.

Lampson, Butler W. “A Critique of ‘An Exploratory Investigation of Programmer Performance Under On-Line and Off-Line Conditions.’” IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE-8 (March 1967): 48-51.

Lampson, Butler W. “Interactive Machine Language Programming.” In Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference, pt.1, 473-81. Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books, 1965.

Lampson, Butler W. “An Open Operating System for a Single-User Machine.” In Classic Operating Systems, ed. Per Brinch Hansen, 414-32. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001.

Landau, Sidney I. Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984.

Landin, Peter J. “The Next 700 Programming Languages.” Communications of the ACM 9 (March 1966): 157-66.

Landow, George P. Hypertext: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1992.

Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0: The Convergence of Contemporary Literary Theory and Technology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2002.

Landweber, Lawrence H. “The Computer Science Network: History, Status, and Future.” Computer Compacts 1 (February 1983): 9-13.

Landy, B. and Roger M. Needham. “Software Engineering Techniques Used in the Development of the Cambridge Multiple-Access System.” Software 1 (April 1971): 167-73.

Lane, Malcolm G. and Mooney, James D. A Practical Approach to Operating Systems. Boston: Boyd and Fraser Publishing Company, 1988.

Lang, Charles A. “SAL: Systems Assembly Language.” In Proceedings of the 1969 Spring Joint Computer Conference, 543-55. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1969.

Langlois, Richard N. and David C. Mowery. “The Federal Government Role in the Development of the U.S. Software Industry.” In The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure, ed. David C. Mowery, 53-85. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

“Languages for First Courses in Computer Science: Rebuttals.” Abacus 2 (Fall 1984): 46-50.

Lansky, Paul. “The Sound of Software: Computer-Made Music.” Perspectives in Computing 5 (Fall-Winter 1985): 34-42.

Larman, Craig and Victor R. Basili. “A History of Iterative and Incremental Development.” IEEE Computer (June 2003): forthcoming.

Larsen, Erik. “For Fun or Foul, Computer Hackers Can Crack Any Code.” The Wall Street Journal, April 13, 1983, A1.

Larsen, Gerald H. “Software: A Qualitative Assessment, or The Man in the Middle Speaks Back.” Datamation 19 (November 1973): 60-6.

Larson, Chris. “The Efficient Use of FORTRAN.” Datamation 17 (August 1, 1971): 24-31.

Lauesen, Soren. “A Large Semaphore Based Operating System.” In Classic Operating Systems, ed. Per Brinch Hansen, 295-323. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001.

Laver, Ross. Random Excess: The Wild Ride of Michael Cowpland and Corel. Toronto: Viking, 1998.

Lavington, Simon H. Early British Computers. Bedford, MA: Digital Press, 1980.

Lavington, Simon H. History of Manchester Computers. Manchester: NCC Publications, 1975.

Lavington, Simon H. “The Manchester Mark I and the Atlas: A Historical Perspective.” Communications of the ACM 21 (1978): 4-12.

Lawrence, Andrew. “Accidental Empire.” Computer Business Review (August 1996): 9-12.

Lawrie, D.H., et al. “Glypnir: A Programming Language for Illiac IV.” Communications of the ACM 18 (March 1975): 157-64.

Lawton, Tom. “A Banking Software Story.” Datamation (November 1, 1985): 98-102.

Layzell, Paul J. “The History of Macro Processors in Programming Language Extensibility.” Computer Journal 28 (1985): 29-33.

Lazowska, Edward D. and Jochen Liedtke. “Operating Systems: Contemporary Issues.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1311-24. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Learn, Dale H. “Information Science (InSci).” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 24 (January-March 2002): 31-4.

Leavenworth, Burton M. “Programming With(out) the GOTO.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 782-6. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1972.

Leavenworth, Burton M., et al. “Nonprocedural Languages.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1244-9. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Leavitt, Don. “Program Patented as Apparatus.” Law and Computer Technology 7 (September-October 1974): 122-4.

Leavitt, Don. “A Silver Anniversary in a 15-Year-Old World.” Software News (July 1984): 38.

Leavitt, Ruth, ed. Artist and Computer. New York: Harmony Books, 1976.

Lebling, P. David, et al. “Zork: A Computerized Fantasy Simulation Game.” IEEE Computer 12 (April 1979): 51-9.

Lecarme, Olivier. “Minitel.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1174. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Lecht, Charles Philip. The Management of Computer Programming Projects. American Management Association, 1967.

Lecht, Charles Philip. The Programmer’s Algol. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.

Lecht, Charles Philip. The Programmer’s PL/I. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

Ledgard, Henry F. “Misconceptions in Human Factors.” Abacus 3 (Winter 1986): 21-7, 45.

Ledgard, Henry F. “Programmers: The Amateur vs. the Professional.” Abacus 2 (Summer 1985): 29-34.

Ledgard, Henry F. “Ten Mini-Languages: A Study of Topical Issues in Programming Languages.” Computing Surveys 3 (September 1971): 115-46.

LeDuc, Albert L., Jr. “Motivation of Programmers.” Data Base: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Special Interest Group on Business Data Processing of the ACM 11 (Summer 1980): 4-12.

Lee, John A.N. Twenty-Five Years of Fortran. Working Paper CS 82010. Department of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, December 11, 1982.

Lee, John A.N. “An Annotated Bibliography of FORTRAN.” Annals of the History of Computing 6 (January 1984): 49-58.

Lee, John A.N. “Introduction to the Special Issue on COBOL: Twenty-Fifth Anniversary.” Annals of the History of Computing 7 (October 1985): 286-7.

Lee, John A.N. “Pioneer Day, 1982.” Annals of the History of Computing 6 (January 1984): 7-14.

Lee, John A.N. “Programming Languages, Past, Present, and Future.” IEEE looking forward [Student Newsletter]. Fall 1996.

Lee, John A.N., ed. “Early Meetings of the Conference on Data Systems Languages.” Annals of the History of Computing 7 (October 1985): 316-25.

Lee, John A.N., ed. “Meetings of the Intermediate-Range Committee.” Annals of the History of Computing 7 (October 1985): 329-41.

Lee, Kaiman and Clifford D. Stewart. “Computer-Aided Graphics in Architecture and Planning.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 980-4. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1972.

Lees, R.B. History of USE, Inc. USE Inc., 1980.

Leeson, Daniel. “IBM FORTRAN Exhibit and Film.” Annals of the History of Computing 6 (January 1984): 41-8.

“Legal Protection of Software: A Matter of Monumental Insignificance?” Computer Law and Tax Report 4 (February 1978): 1-2.

Leiner, Barry M., et al. “The Past and Future History of the Internet.” Communications of the ACM 40 (February 1997): 102-8.

Lemmons, Phil. “A Guided Tour of VisiOn.” Byte (June 1983): 256.

Lenoir, Timothy. “Shaping Biomedicine as an Information Science.” In Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems, eds. Mary Ellen Bowden, Trudi Bellardo Hahn, and Robert V. Williams, 27-46. Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc., 1999.

Lenstra, Jan Karel, et al., eds. History of Mathematical Programming, a Collection of Personal Reminiscences. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1991.

Lentz, J.J. “A New Approach to Small-Computer Programming and Control.” IBM Journal of Research and Development 2 (January 1958): 72-83.

Leonard, A.J. and Marion E. Tribe. “Notable Features of Orion.” Computer Journal 14 (November 1971): 344-7.

Leonard, Andrew. Bots: The Origin of New Species. San Francisco: HardWired, 1997.

Leonard, Andrew. “The Joy of Perl: How Larry Wall Invented a Messy Programming Language and Changed the Face of the Web.” Salon.com, October 13, 1998.

Leonard, Andrew. “The Little Operating System that Could.” Salon.com, June 26, 1998.

Leonard, Andrew. “The Saint of Free Software: Maverick Richard Stallman Keeps the Faith and Gives Bill Gates the Finger.” Salon.com, August 31, 1998.

Leonhardt, David. “John Tukey, 85, Statistician; Coined the Word ‘Software.’” New York Times, July 28, 2000, p. A19.

Leslie, Harry. “The Report Program Generator.” Datamation 13 (June 1967): 26-8.

Lesourne, J. and R. Armand. “A Brief History of the First Decade of SEMA.” Annals of the History of Computing 13 (1991): 341-9.

Lesuisse, R. “Some Lessons Drawn from the History of the Binary Search Algorithm.” Computer Journal 26 (1983): 154-63.

Letson, Laurence R. “Computer Program Protection in Three British Commonwealth Countries: What Can U.S. Learn?” Idea 15 (Summer 1971): 304-21.

Lett, Alexander S. and William L. Konigsford. “TSS/360: A Time-Shared Operating System.” In Proceedings of the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference, pt. 1, 7-14. Washington, D.C.: Thompson Books, 1968.

Levering, Robert, et al. The Computer Entrepreneurs. New York: New American Library, 1984.

Levin, B.M. “Algorithms in Business Data Processing.” In Proceedings of the 1963 Spring Joint Computer Conference, 1-8. Baltimore: Spartan Books, Inc., 1963.

Levin, Joseph H. “Construction and Use of Subroutines for the SEAC.” In Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery, 173-80. Pittsburgh: Richard Rimbach Associates, 1952.

Levinson, Paul. “Bulletin Board.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 162-4. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Levy, Steven. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Anchor/Doubleday, 1984.

Lewis, Harry R. “SHAPESHIFTER: An Interactive Program for Experimenting with Complex-Plane Transformations.” In Proceedings of the 23rd ACM National Conference, 717-24. Princeton, NJ: Brandon/Systems Press, Inc., 1968.

Lewis, Michael. The New New Thing: A Silicon Valley Story. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.

Lewis, Peter A.W., et al. “A Pseudo-Random Number Generator for the System/360.” IBM Systems Journal 8 (1969): 136-46.

Lewis, Robert. “A Prolog to the Future.” PC World (December 1986): 284-95.

Lewis, Ted G. Microsoft Rising: . . . and Other Tales of Silicon Valley. Wiley-IEEE Press, 1999.

Libellator. [Peter C. Patton] “Programming Personalities in Europe.” Datamation 12 (September 1966): 28-9.

Licklider, J.C.R. and Welden E. Clark. “On-Line Man-Computer Communication.” In Proceedings of the 1962 Spring Joint Computer Conference, 113-28. Palo Alto, CA: The National Press, 1962.

Licklider, T.R. “Ten Years of Rows and Columns (Spread Sheet Programs).” Byte Magazine 14 (December 1989): 324-31.

Liebowitz, Stanley J. and Stephen E. Margolis. Winners, Losers, and Microsoft: Competition and Antitrust in High Technology. Independent Institute, 1999.

Lincoln, Harry B. The Computer and Music. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1970.

Linde, R.R., et al. “The ADEPT-50 Time-Sharing System.” In Proceedings of the 1969 Fall Joint Computer Conference, 39-50. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1969.

Ling, D.P. “The Education of Professional Programmers.” In Proceedings of the 1964 Symposium on Digital Computing, 11-19. Holmdel, NJ: Bell Laboratories, 1964.

Linick, Evan, Collector, Proceedings of the Mark IV Group, 1969-1979, CBI 130. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Lindsey, Charles H. “A History of ALGOL 68.” In History of Programming Languages—II, ed. Thomas J. Bergin, Jr. and Richard G. Gibson, Jr., 27-96. New York: ACM Press, 1996.

Linowes, David F. “How Databanks Get the Goods on Everybody.” Business and Social Review 26 (Summer 1978): 54-57.

Lipkis, Roselyn S. “The Use of Subroutines on SWAC.” In Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery, 231-3. Pittsburgh: Richard Rimbach Associates, 1952.

Liskov, Barbara H. “Data Types and Program Correctness.” In Proceedings of the 1975 National Computer Conference and Exposition, 285-6. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1975.

Liskov, Barbara H. “A Design Methodology for Reliable Software Systems.” In AFIPS Conference Proceedings, 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference, vol. 41, pt. 1, 191-9. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1972.

Liskov, Barbara H. “The Design of the Venus Operating System.” In Classic Operating Systems, ed. Per Brinch Hansen, 282-94. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001.

Liskov, Barbara H. “The Design of the Venus Operating System.” Communications of the ACM 15 (1972): 144-9.

Liskov, Barbara H. “A History of CLU.” In History of Programming Languages—II, ed. Thomas J. Bergin, Jr. and Richard G. Gibson, Jr., 471-510. New York: ACM Press, 1996.

Littlewood, B. and J.L. Verrall. “A Bayesian Reliability Growth Model for Computer Software.” Applied Statistics 22 (1973): 332-346.

Lite, Sheldon. “Using a System Generator.” Datamation 21 (June 1975): 44-7.

Littrell, R. Fred. “A Step Toward Quality Control in Computer Programming: Understanding the Psychology of the Management of Computer Programmers.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 419-23. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1973.

Llewelyn, David and Harry Small. “Copyright in Computer Software: A Reply.” Solicitors’ Journal 128 (May 25, 1984): 358-60.

Lockhart, Thomas L. and John E. McGarry. “Patent Eligibility of Computer-Implemented Inventions in the Wake of Diehr.” Journal of Urban Law 59 (Fall 1981): 63-81.

Loftus, Margaret, interview by Judy E. O’Neill, April 18 and 25, 1995, Minneapolis, MN Oral History 316. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Lohr, Steve. Go To: The Story of the Math Majors, Bridge Players, Engineers, Chess Wizards, Maverick Scientists, and Iconoclasts—The Programmers Who Created the Software Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 2001.

London, Ralph L. “The Current State of Proving Programs Correct.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 39-46. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1972.

Lonergan, William and Paul King. “Design of the B 5000 System.” Annals of the History of Computing 9 (1987): 16-22.

Lorin, Harold. “A Guided Bibliography to Sorting.” IBM Systems Journal 10 (1971): 244-54.

Lovejoy, Margot. “Computer Art.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 320-8. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Lowe, Janet, comp. Bill Gates Speaks: Wisdom From the World’s Greatest Entrepreneur. New York: John Wiley, 1998.

Lowood, Henry. Current Bibliography in the History of Technology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993-6.

Lowood, Henry. “The Hard Work of Software History.” RBM: A Journal of Rare Books, Manuscripts, and Cultural Heritage 2 (Fall 2001): 141-61.

Lowood, Henry. Sources on the History of Computing: Stanford and the Silicon Valley: From Steeples of Excellence to Silicon Valley: The Story of Varian Associates and Stanford University Industrial Park. Palo Alto, CA: Varian Associates, 1988.

Lowry, Michael R. “Automatic Programming.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 119-22. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Lucas, Henry C., Jr. “On the Failure to Implement Structured Programming and Other Techniques.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 291-3. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1975.

Lucas, Peter. “Formal Semantics of Programming Languages: VDL.” IBM Journal of Research and Development 25 (1981): 549-61.

Lucas, Peter. “On the Formalization of Programming Languages: Early History and Main Approaches.” In The Vienna Development Method: The Meta-Language, eds. Dines Bjørner and Cliff B. Jones, 1-23. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1978.

Lucas, Peter and Kurt Walk. “On the Formal Description of PL/I.” In Annual Review in Automatic Programming Language. New York: Wiley, 1962.

Luccarelli, Peter A., Jr. “The Supremacy of Federal Copyright Law Over State Trade Secret Law for Copyrightable Computer Programs Marked with a Copyright Notice.” Computer/Law Journal 3 (1981): 19-52.

Lucena, Carlos J. and Daniel M. Berry. “Towards a Definition of Structured Programming.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 635-40. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1974.

Luebbert, William F. “Computer Science at West Point.” Datamation 11 (February 1965): 32-5.

Luebbert, William F. “Computer Science at West Point.” Datamation 11 (March 1965): 58-67.

Luebbert, William F. and Percy W. Collom, Jr. “Signal Corps Research and Development on Automatic Programming of Digital Computers.” Communications of the ACM 2 (February 1959): 22-7.

Lukas, George. “Uses of the LOGO Programming Language in Undergraduate Instruction.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 1130-6. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1972.

Lukoff, Herman. From Dits to Bits: A Personal History of the Electronic Computer. Portland, Ore.: Robotics Press, 1979.

Lutsky, Patricia. “Information Extraction From Documents for Automating Software Testing.” Artificial Intelligence in Engineering 14 (January 2000): 63-9.

Lynch, James P. and R. Douglas Roland. “Computer Animation of a Bicycle Simulation.” In AFIPS Conference Proceedings, 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference, vol. 41, pt. 1, 161-7. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1972.

Lynch, Richard K. “On Analytical ‘Engines’, Data ‘Architectures,’ and Software ‘Engineers’: Metaphoric Aspects of the Development of Computer Terminology.” Ph.D. diss., Columbia University Teachers College, 1993.

Lynch, William C. “Description of a High Capacity, Fast Turnaround University Computing Center.” In Classic Operating Systems, ed. Per Brinch Hansen, 88-101. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001.

MacGrady, Glenn J. “Protection of Computer Software: An Update and Practical Synthesis.” Houston Law Review 20 (July 1983): 1033-82.

MacGuffie, J.V. “Computer Programs for People.” Personnel Journal 48 (April 1969): 253-58.

Machover, Carl. “A Brief, Personal History of Computer Graphics.” IEEE 11 (November 1978): 21-8.

Machover, Carl. The CAD/CAM Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989.

Machover, Carl. The CAD/CAM Handbook. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Machover, Carl. Computer Graphics Art. Tarrytown, NY: Pergamon, 1995.

Machover, Carl. “Computer Graphics in the United Kingdom: A Few People, Places and Events – D.A. Duce and F.R.A. Hopgood Reminisce and Share Research on Early Computer Graphics Developments in the United Kingdom.” Computer Graphics 34 (2000): 30.

Machover, Carl. “Four Decades of Computer Graphics.” IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications 14 (November-December 1994): 14-9.

Machover, Carl. “The Giloi’s School of Computer Graphics: Professor Wolfgang Giloi and Proteges Discuss the Development and Current Status of Computer Graphics Activity in Germany.” Computer Graphics 35 (2001): 12.

Machover, Carl. “Green and Hopgood Share UK Computer Graphics History - Circa 1960, the Computer Graphics Industry Featured the Stromberg Carlson SC4020, Fortran Programs and Some Very Innovative Individuals.” Computer Graphics 34 (2000): 28.

Machover, Carl. “A Guide to Sources of Information About Computer Graphics.” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 1 (January 1981): 73-85.

Machover, Carl. “The History of VersaCAD: Computer Graphics Pioneer Discusses Early Work with Fluor Corp., the Founding of VersaCAD Corp., and Current Activities.” Computer Graphics 35 (2001): 22.

Machover, Carl. “An Interview with Andries van Dam.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (April-June 1998): 81-4.

Machover, Carl. “Looking Back to SIGGRAPH’s Beginnings: Our Columnist Interviews SIGGRAPH Co-Founder Sam Matsa. Also, the Computer Graphics Community Says Goodbye to Dr. Bob Schiffman.” Computer Graphics 32 (1998): 25.

Machover, Carl. “On Frustrations of Collaborating with Artists: Ken Knowlton Recalls the Ups and Downs and All-Arounds of the Art-Technology Collaborations Throughout His Career.” Computer Graphics 35 (2001): 20.

Machover, Carl. “Opportunities and Remembrances: Opportunities for Enjoying Computer Graphics’ Rich History Abound. Also, Enjoy Several Recollections from Pioneers.” Computer Graphics 34 (2000): 19.

Machover, Carl. “A Short Personal Memoir: Randy Stickrod Recaps his View of Computer Graphics, Beginning in 1967.” Computer Graphics 32 (1998): 34.

Machover, Carl. “Springing into the Fifth Decade of Computer Graphics: Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going!” SIGGRAPH 1996, 513-514.

Machover, Carl. “Twenty-Five Years of Computer Graphics.” Computer Graphics World (September 1983): 81-90.

Machover, Carl. “An Update on The Story of Computer Graphics: Human Accomplishment is Heralded in the SIGGRAPH Documentary of the History of the Computer Graphics Industry.” Computer Graphics 33 (1999): 27.

Machover, Carl. “Women in Computer Graphics: In ‘Memories of the Good Ole Girls,’ Alyce Branum Tells Readers How Talented Women Survived in a Male-Dominated World.” Computer Graphics 33 (1999): 28.

Machover, Carl and Sherry Keowan. “Computer Graphics Pioneers.” Computer Graphics 31 (1997): 7.

Machover, Carl and Sherry Keowan. “Computer Graphics Pioneers.” Computer Graphics 31 (1997): 10.

Machover, Carl and Sherry Keowan. “Computer Graphics Pioneers.” Computer Graphics 31 (1997): 14.

Machover, Carl, et al. “Computer Graphics in Entertainment: Guest Editors’ Introduction.” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 18 (1998): 22.

MacIver, Kenny. “CA: The Hidden Dimension.” Computer Business Review (July 1988): 14-20.

MacKenzie, Dana. “Microsoft Researches its Future.” Science 279 (February 27, 1998): 1294-6.

MacKenzie, Donald A. “Computers, ‘Bugs,’ and the Sociology of Mathematical Proof.” Information and Communication Technologies: Visions and Realities, 69-86. Oxford University Press, 1996.

MacKenzie, Donald A. Knowing Machines: Essays on Technical Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.

MacKenzie, Donald A. “A View from the Sonnenbichl: On the Historical Sociology of Software and System Dependability.” In History of Computing: Software Issues, eds. Ulf Hashagen, Reinhard Keil-Slawik, and Arthur L. Norberg, 97-122. New York: Springer, 2002.

MacLennan, Bruce J. Principles of Programming Languages. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983.

MacLennan, Bruce J. “Who Cares About Elegance: The Role of Aesthetics in Programming Language Design.” Sigplan Notices 32 (March 1997): 33-7.

MacNeal, Richard H. The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation: The First Twenty Years. South Coast, CA: MacNeal-Schwendler, 1988.

Madnick, Stuart E. “Multi-Processor Software Lockout.” In Proceedings of the 23rd ACM National Conference, 19-24. Princeton, NJ: Brandon/Systems Press, Inc., 1968.

Madnick, Stuart E. and John J. Donovan. Operating Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.

Maggs, Peter B. “Computer Programs as the Object of Intellectual Property in the United States of America.” American Journal of Comparative Law 30 (1982): 251-73.

Maggs, Peter B. “Some Problems of Legal Protection of Programs for Microcomputer Control Systems.” University of Illinois Law Forum (1979): 453-68.

Mahoney, Michael S. “Computer Science: The Search for a Mathematical Theory.” In Science in the 20th Century, eds. John Krige and Dominique Pestre. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997.

Mahoney, Michael S. “Finding a History for Software Engineering.” In SIGSOFT '98, Proceedings of the ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering, November 3-5, 1998, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, 87. ACM, 1998.

Mahoney, Michael S. “The History of Computing in the History of Technology.” Annals of the History of Computing 10 (1988): 113-25.

Mahoney, Michael S. “Making History.” In History of Programming Languages—II, ed. Thomas J. Bergin, Jr. and Richard G. Gibson, Jr., 23-6. New York: ACM Press, 1996.

Mahoney, Michael S. “Probing the Elephant: How Do the Parts Fit Together?” In History of Computing: Software Issues, eds. Ulf Hashagen, Reinhard Keil-Slawik, and Arthur L. Norberg, 277-83. New York: Springer, 2002.

Mahoney, Michael S. “The Roots of Software Engineering.” CWI Quarterly 3 (1990): 325-34.

Mahoney, Michael S. “Software as Science—Science as Software.” In History of Computing: Software Issues, eds. Ulf Hashagen, Reinhard Keil-Slawik, and Arthur L. Norberg, 25-48. New York: Springer, 2002.

Mahoney, Robert W. Diebold, Incorporated: From Safes to Software.  New York: Newcomen Society of the United States, 1995.

Malerba, Franco and Salvatore Torrisi. “The Dynamics of Market Structure and Innovation in the Western European Software Industry.” In The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure, ed. David C. Mowery, 165-96. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Malik, Masud Ahmad. “Evolution of the High Level Programming Languages: A Critical Perspective.” Sigplan Notices 33 (December 1998): 72-80.

Malin, David. “CONTRANS: Conceptual Thought, Random-Net Simulation.” In Proceedings of the 1961 Eastern Joint Computer Conference, 124-34. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1961.

Mallary, R. “Tran2: A Computer Graphics Program to Make Sculpture.” In Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference, 451-60. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1970.

Maloney, Janice. “Larry Ellison is Captain Ahab and Bill Gates is Moby Dick.” Fortune (October 28, 1996): 75-8.

Manes, Stephen and Paul Andrews. Gates: How Microsoft’s Mogul Reinvented an Industry and Made Himself the Richest Man in America. New York: Doubleday, 1993.

Mantle, Ray A. “Trade Secret and Copyright Protection of Computer Software.” Computer/Law Journal 4 (Spring 1984): 669-94.

Mapstone, Bobbi and Morton I. Bernstein. “The Founding of SHARE.” Annals of the History of Computing 2 (October 1980): 363-72.

Marciniak, John J., ed. Encyclopedia of Software Engineering. 2 vols. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994.

Margolis, Maier and Eric Weiss. “An Experimental Digital Flight Control System.” In Proceedings of the Western Computer Conference, 23-37. New York: American Institute of Electrical Engineers, April 1954.

Market and Product Reports Collection, 1963-, CBI 55. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Markoff, John. “A Darwinian Creation of Software.” New York Times, February 28, 1990, p. C6.

Markoff, John. “Threat is Seen to Heirloom Software.” New York Times, May 19, 2003, p. C4.

Marks, Brian L. “Design of a Checkout Compiler.” IBM Systems Journal 12 (1973): 315-27.

Marks, Howard. “It’s Time to Disband Software’s Secret Police.” Data Communications (September 21, 1992): 27-8.

Marks, Shirley L. “JOSS: Conversational Computing for the Nonprogrammer.” Annals of the History of Computing 4 (January 1982): 35-52.

Marrill, Tom and Lawrence G. Roberts. “A Proposed Communications Network to Tie Together Existing Computers.” In Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference, 425-31. Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books, 1966.

Marshall, Eliot. “The Scourge of Computer Viruses.” Science (April 8, 1988): 133-4.

Martin, James. Security, Accuracy, and Privacy in Computer Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1973.

Martin, William A. “Sorting.” Computing Surveys 3 (December 1971): 147-74.

Martinsson, Bertil. “Why Not Structured Data Processing?” Datamation 21 (March 1975): 152-4.

Mason, John F. “Grace Hopper: ‘It’s Rewarding Trying to Do Things in a New Way.’” Electronic Design 22 (October 25, 1976): 82-6.

Mason, Todd. “Sam Wyly: Will the Hunter Become the Hunted?” Business Week (July 13, 1987): 62-3.

Matarazzo, Joseph D. “Clinical Psychological Test Interpretations by Computer: Hardware Outpaces Software.” Computers in Human Behavior 1 (1983): 235-253.

Mathews, Harley, et al. “FSDS: Fairchild Software Development System.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 134-8. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1975.

Mathews, Max V. “The Computer as a Musical Instrument.” Computer Decisions 4 (February 1972): 22-25.

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