CBI: Software History Bibliography, N-S
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Software History Bibliography

update: August 1, 2003

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Nance, Richard E. “A History of Discrete Event Simulation Programming Languages.” In History of Programming Languages—II, ed. Thomas J. Bergin, Jr. and Richard G. Gibson, Jr., 369-427. New York: ACM Press, 1996.

Nance, Richard E. “Simulation Programming Languages: An Abridged History.” WSC '95, Proceedings of 1995 Winter Simulation Conference, December 3-6, 1995, Arlington, VA, 1307-13. ACM, 1995.

Nanus, B. and L. Farr. “Some Cost Contributors to Large-Scale Programs.” AFIPS Proceedings of the Joint Computer Congress 25 (Spring 1964): 239-48.

Narten, Thomas. “Systems Programming.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1739-41. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Narten, Thomas and Mark Burgess. “Unix Operating System.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1816-9. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Nash, Stephen G., ed. A History of Scientific Computing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1990.

Nash, Tom. “India’s Lead in Offshore Software.” ELSOFTEX Newsletter 2 (January 1989): 4.

National Bureau of Standards Computer Literature Collection, 1956-1978, CBI 32. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Naur, Peter. “Algol.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 32-4. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Naur, Peter. “The European Side of the Last Phase of the Development of ALGOL 60.” ACM SIGPLAN Notices 13 (August 1978): 15-44.

Naur, Peter. “The European Side of the Last Phase of the Development of ALGOL.” In History

of Programming Languages, ed. Richard L. Wexelblat, 92-138, 147-70, 172. New York: Academic Press, 1981.

Naur, Peter. “Impressions of the Early Days of Programming.” Bit 20 (1980): 414-25.

Naur, Peter. “Successes and Failures of the ALGOL Effort.” ALGOL Bulletin 28 (July 1968): 58-62.

Naur, Peter. “Trends in Computer Science Education.” GI Jahrestagung (1974): 85-93.

Naur, Peter and Brian Randell. Software Engineering. Brussels, Belgium: Scientific Affairs Division, NATO, 1969.

Naur, Peter, et al. Software Engineering: Concepts and Techniques. New York: Petrocelli/Charter, 1976.

Necas, Jiri. “Paper Tape.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1348-9. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Needleman, Raphael. “20th Anniversary Report.” Byte 20 (September 1995): 49-165.

Neely, Peter M. “On Program Control Structure.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 119-25. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1973.

“Negligence: Liability for Defective Software.” Oklahoma Law Review 33 (Fall 1980): 848-55.

Nelson, Ronald H. “Computer Programming for Facilities Treating Developmentally Disabled Children.” Computer and Society 8 (Summer 1977): 14-17.

Nesse, Arthur C. “A User Looks at Software.” Datamation 14 (October 1968): 48-51.

Neufeld, M. Lynn and Martha Cornog. “Database History: From Dinosaurs to Compact Disks.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 37 (July 1986): 183-90.

Neuhold, Erich J. “The Formal Description of Programming Languages.” IBM Systems Journal 10 (1971): 86-112.

Neuhold, Erich J. and Gerhard Chroust, eds. Formal Models in Programming. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1985.

Newborn, Monroe. Computer Chess. New York: Academic Press, 1975.

Newborn, Monroe. Kasparov vs. Deep Blue: Computer Chess Comes of Age. Springer-Verlag, 1996.

Newcomer, William. “Dylakor.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 24 (January-March 2002): 34-7.

Newell, Allen. “Intellectual Issues in the History of Artificial Intelligence.” In The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages, eds. Fritz Machlup and Una Mansfield, 187-227. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1983.

Newell, Allen and Herbert A. Simon. “Computer Simulation of Human Thinking.” Science 134 (December 1961): 2011-7.

Newell, Allen and Herbert A. Simon. “Computer Science as Empirical Inquiry.” Communications of the ACM 19 (1976): 113-26.

Newell, Allen and Herbert A. Simon. “Symbol Manipulation.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1731-5. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Newell, Allen, et al. “Chess-Playing Programs and the Problem of Complexity.” IBM Journal of Research and Development 2 (October 1958): 320-35.

Newell, Allen, et al. “Herbert A. Simon.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1574-6. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Newell, Martin E., et al. “A Solution to the Hidden Surface Problem.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 443-9. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1972.

Newman, Charles. “Software: Build or Buy.” Banking Technology (May 1984): 43-6.

Newman, William M. “An Informal Graphics System Based on the LOGO Language.” In Proceedings of the 1973 National Computer Conference and Exposition, 651-5. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1973.

Newman, William M. and Robert F. Sproull. Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979.

Newton, Carol M. “Graphics in Medicine and Biology.” In Proceedings of the 1973 National Computer Conference and Exposition, 639-42. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1973.

Nie, Norman H. “Statistical Design and Scientific Breakthrough: Some Reflections on the Future.” In Computer Science and Statistics: Proceedings of the 13th Symposium on the Interface, ed. William F. Eddy. New York: Springer Verlag, 1981.

Nies, Thomas M. “Cincom Systems.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 24 (January-March 2002): 37-8.

Nievergelt, Jürg and J. Craig Farrar. “What Machines Can and Cannot Do.” Computing Surveys 4 (June 1972): 81-96.

Nimtz, Robert O. “Development of the Law of Computer Software.” Computer Law Service 3 (1980): 1-22.

Nimtz, Robert O. “Development of the Law of Computer Software Protection.” Journal of the Patent Office Society 61 (January 1979): 3-43.

Nimtz, Robert O. “Diamond v. Diehr: A Turning Point.” Rutgers Journal of Computers, Technology, and the Law 8 (1981): 267-71.

Nimtz, Robert O. “The Patentability of Computer Programs.” Rutgers Journal of Computers and the Law (Spring 1970): 38-49.

“1989 Directory of Computer Software for Banking.” Bank Administration 65 (October 1989): 56-96.

Noble, A.S., Jr., et al. “Design of an Integrated Programming and Operating System.” IBM Systems Journal 2 (1963): 3-60.

Nohr, Elliott C. “FORTRAN Activities at SHARE Meeting.” Annals of the History of Computing 6 (January 1984): 65-9.

Nolan, Richard L. “Computer Databases: The Future is Now.” Harvard Business Review 51 (September-October 1973): 98-114.

Nolan, Richard L. “Thoughts About the Fifth Stage.” Data Base: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Special Interest Group on Business Data Processing of the ACM 7 (Fall 1975): 4-10.

Norberg, Arthur L. and Judy E. O’Neill. A History of the Information Processing Techniques Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Minneapolis: Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, 1992.

Norberg, Arthur L. and Judy E. O’Neill. Transforming Computer Technology: Information Processing and the Pentagon, 1962-1986. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,1996.

Northcote, Robert S. “Software Development for the Array Computer Illiac IV.” In Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Computer Conference, 313-9. Adelaide, South Australia, 1969.

Northcote, Robert S. Software Development for the Array Computer Illiac IV. Report no. 313. Urbana, IL: Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, March 12, 1969.

Northcote, Robert S. Some Software Considerations in Utilization of a Network of Computers. Illiac IV, Document 232. November 21, 1969.

Notestine, Ronald E. “Graphics and Computer-Aided Design in Aerospace.” In Proceedings of the 1973 National Computer Conference and Exposition, 629-33. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1973.

Novick, Mitchell P. and Helene Wallenstein. “The Algorithm and Computer Software Patentability: A Scientific View of a Legal Problem.” Rutgers Journal of Computers, Technology, and the Law 7 (1980): 313-41.

Nowak, Michael J. and Charles E. Grantham. “The Virtual Incubator: Managing Human Capital in the Software Industry.” Research Policy 29 (2000): 125-34.

Nyce, James M. and Paul Kahn. From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind’s Machine. Corpus Christi, TX: Academic Press, 1992.

Nycum, Susan Hubbell. “Legal Protection for Computer Programs.” Computer/Law Journal 1 (Spring 1978): 1-83.

Nycum, Susan Hubbell. “Legal Protection of Software.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 978-80. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Nycum, Susan Hubbell. “Liability for Malfunction of a Computer Program.” Rutgers Journal of Computers, Technology, and the Law 7 (1979): 1-22.

Nycum, Susan Hubbell and George H. Bosworth. Software Proprietary Rights: A Legal Guide. Menlo Park, CA: Stanford Research Institute, 1976.

Nygaard, Kristen and Ole-Johan Dahl. “The Development of the SIMULA Languages.” ACM SIGPLAN Notices 13 (August 1978): 245-72.

Nygaard, Kristen and Ole-Johan Dahl. “The Development of the SIMULA Languages.” In History of Programming Languages, ed. Richard L. Wexelblat, 439-93. New York: Academic Press, 1981.

O’Brien, Michael T. and Laura Breeden. “A Brief History and Description of CSNET.” In Proceedings of the July 1983 USENIX Association Toronto Conference, July 1983.

O’Connor, D.G. “Introduction to Training Simulator Programming.” In Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference, 203-12. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1971.

Ogden, Stewart and Nelson Wadsworth. “On-Line Graphics at the University of Utah.” Datamation 15 (November 1969): 159-65.

Ogdin, Jerry L. “The Case Against BASIC.” Datamation 17 (September 1, 1971): 34-41.

Ogdin, Jerry L. “Designing Reliable Software.” Datamation 18 (July 1972): 71-8.

Ogdin, Jerry L. “Improving Software Reliability.” Datamation 19 (January 1973): 49-52.

Ogdin, Jerry L. “The Mongolian Hordes Versus Superprogrammer.” Infosystems (December 1972): 20-3.

Ohno-Machado, Lucila and Leslie Perreault. “Medical Applications.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1111-7. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Oldfield, Homer (Barney) R. “General Electric Enters the Computer Business—Revisited.” IEEE Annals of Computer History 17 (October 1995): 46-55.

Oler, Harriet Lee. “Statutory Copyright Protection for Electronic Digital Computer Programs: Administrative Considerations, Part One.” Law and Computer Technology 7 (July-August 1974): 96-116.

Oler, Harriet Lee. “Statutory Copyright Protection for Electronic Digital Computer Programs: Administrative Considerations, Part Two.” Law and Computer Technology 7 (September-October 1974): 118-22.

Oliphint, Clark. “Operating System for the B 5000.” In Classic Operating Systems, ed. Per Brinch Hansen, 78-87. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001.

Oliphint, Clark. “Operating System for the B 5000.” Datamation 10 (May 1964): 42-5.

Olivier, D. P. “Software: Studying Past Medical Device Software-Safety Failures Can Help Keep History From Repeating Itself.” Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry 17 (1995): 116.

Olle, T. William. “MIS: Data Bases.” Datamation 16 (November 15, 1970): 47-50.

Olsen, Philip F. and Robert J. Orrange. “Real-Time Systems for Federal Applications: A Review of Significant Technological Developments.” IBM Journal of Research and Development 25 (September 1981): 405-16.

Olson, Steve. “Edsgar W. Dijkstra, the Sage of Software.” Science 84 (January-February 1984): 75-80.

O’Malley, Michael and Roy Rosenzwieg. “Brave New World or Blind Alley: American History on the World Wide Web.” Journal of American History (June 1997): 132-55.

Oman, Paul W. and Ted G. Lewis. Milestones in Software Evolution. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1990.

“On Diamond v. Diehr and Lutton.” Idea 22 (Spring 1981): 104-12.

“One Compiler, Coming Up! Jones, Nutt, Patrick Form Computer Sciences Corporation.” Datamation 5 (May-June 1959): 15.

Opler, Ascher. “Automatic Program Translation.” Datamation 9 (May 1963): 45-8.

Opler, Ascher. “Fourth Generation Software.” Datamation 13 (January 1967): 22-4.

Opler, Ascher. “Measurement of Software Characteristics.” Datamation 10 (July 1964): 27-30.

Opler, Ascher. “Testing Programming Aptitude.” Datamation 9 (October 1963): 28-31.

Opler, Ascher. “Trends in Programming Concepts.” Datamation 7 (January 1961): 13-5.

Orchard-Hays, William. “The Evolution of Programming Systems.” Proceedings of the IRE (January 1961): 283-95.

Orchard-Hays, William. “History of Mathematical Programming Systems.” Annals of the History of Computing 6 (July 1984): 296-312.

Orchard-Hays, William. “Software for Mathematical Programming.” In Proceedings of the 1971 Annual Conference, 301-3. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1971.

Organick, Elliot I. The Multics System: An Examination of Its Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1972.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Software: An Emerging Industry. Paris, 1985.

Ossanna, Joe. “The Current State of Mini-Computer Software.” In Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, 111-8. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1972.

Oswald, Henry. “The Various FORTRANS.” Datamation 10 (August 1964): 25-9.

Otte, Fred H. “What is Systems Programming?” Datamation 14 (February 1968): 58-61.

Page, Bob. A Report on the Internet Worm. University of Lowell, Computer Science Department. Unpublished report dated November 7, 1988.

Pagenberg, Birgett A. “Patentability of Computer Programs on the National and International Level.” International Review of Industrial Property and Copyright Law 5 (1974): 1-43.

Painter, James A. “Computer Preparation of a Poetry Concordance.” Communications of the ACM 3 (February 1960): 91-5.

Painter, Michael A. “Recent Developments in the Protection of Computer Programs Under the Patent System.” Journal of the Beverly Hills Bar Association 5 (November-December 1971): 32-8.

Palme, Jacob. “Languages for Reliable Software.” Datamation 21 (December 1975): 77-80.

Palme, Jacob. “Software Security.” Datamation 20 (January 1974): 51-5.

Palmer, George F. “Programming: The Profession That Isn’t.” Datamation 21 (April 1975): 171-3.

Palmer, Ian. Database Systems: A Practical Reference. CACI, 1975.

“A Panel Discussion on Time-Sharing.” Datamation 10 (November 1964): 38-44.

Pantages, Angeline. “Language in the Sixties.” Datamation 11 (November 1965): 141-2.

Pantages, Angeline. “A Look at Unbundling.” Datamation 15 (June 1969): 85-97.

Pantages, Angeline. “The Problems of Packaged Software.” Datamation 14 (April 1968): 75-9.

“Paper Tracks History of Welding Software.” Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology 102 (1997): 605.

Papert, Seymour. The Artificial Intelligence of Hubert L. Dreyfus: A Budget of Fallacies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1968.

Parke, Frederick I. “Computer-Generated Animation of Faces.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 451-7. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1972.

Parker, R.W. “The SABRE System.” Datamation 11 (September 1965): 49-52.

Parmelee, Richard P., et al. “Virtual Storage and Virtual Machine Concepts.” IBM Systems Journal 11 (1972): 99-130.

Parnas, David L. “Software Aspects of Strategic Defense Systems.” Communications of the ACM 28 (December 1985): 1326-35.

Parnas, David L. “Some Conclusions From an Experiment in Software Engineering Techniques.” In Proceedings of the 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference, vol. 41, pt. 1, 325-9. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1972.

Parthasarathy, Balaji. “Globalization and Agglomeration in Newly Industrializing Countries: The State and the Information Technology Industry in Bangalore, India.” Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley, 2000.

Patent Data Publications, Computer Patent Abstracts, 1931-1952, CBI 25. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

“Patent Law: Computer Programs for Processing Data with a Digital Computer Cannot Be Patented Under Present United States Laws.” Loyola University Law Journal 4 (Summer 1973): 560-78.

“Patent Law—Computer Programs: Unpatentable Mental Process—Gottschalk v. Benson.” Boston College Industrial and Commercial Law Review 14 (May 1973): 1051-71.

“Patent Law: Patentability of a Process that Includes a Programmed Digital Computer: The Court Invents a New Standard.” University of Dayton Law Review 7 (Fall 1981): 157-68.

“Patent Law—Patentability of Computer Programs: A Computerized Procedure That Has a Mathematical Formula as Its Only Feature is Not Patentable Subject Matter.” University of Detroit Journal of Urban Law 56 (Fall 1978): 289-304.

“Patent Law—Patentable Subject Matter: Computer Software—Parker v. Flook.” New York School Law Review 24 (1979): 975-84.

“Patent Law—Patentable Subject Matter: Manufacturing Process Which Includes Use of Mathematical Formula and Computer Program Constitutes Patentable Subject Matter.” St. Mary’s Law Journal 13 (1981): 420-30.

“Patent Law: Process Claim Involving Computer Program Meets Statutory Subject Matter Requirements.” Tulane Law Review 56 (February 1982): 785-803.

“Patent Law: Subject-Matter Patentability—Process Patents—The Patentability of Computer Software.” Wisconsin Law Review (1979): 867-95.

“Patent Law: The Next-to-Last Step to Software Patentability? Diamond v. Diehr, 450 U.S. 175 (1981).” Campbell Law Review 4 (Fall 1981): 219-37.

“Patentability of Computer Programs.” Baylor Law Review 34 (Winter 1982): 125-41.

“Patentability of Computer Programs.” University of Miami Law Review 27 (Spring-Summer 1973): 494-504.

“Patentability of Computer Software: The Nonobviousness Issue.” Iowa Law Review 62 (December 1976): 615-35.

“Patentability of Software Technology.” Northern Illinois University Law Review 2 (Spring 1982): 471-87.

“Patentability: Piecing Together the Computer Software Patent Puzzle.” Saint Louis University Law Journal 19 (Spring 1975): 351-74.

“Patenting Inventions that Embody Computer Programs as Trade Secrets.” Washington Law Review 59 (1984): 601-15.

“Patents and Computer Programs: The Supreme Court Makes a Decision.” Kentucky Law Journal 62 (1973-74): 533-56.

“Patents for Software Inventions: The Supreme Court’s Decision.” Journal of the Patent Office Society 55 (January 1973): 59-61.

Paton, Norman W. and Oscar Díaz. “Active Database Systems.” ACM Computing Surveys 31 (March 1999): 63-103.

Paterson, Tim. “An Insider Look at MS-DOS.” Byte (June 1983): 230.

Patterson, Albert C. “Data Base Hazards.” Datamation 18 (July 1972): 48-50.

Patterson, Albert C. “A Data Base Management System.” In Proceedings of the 1971 Annual Conference, 197-209. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1971.

Patton, Peter C. “Computer Science Education in Europe.” Datamation 11 (October 1965): 77-80.

Patton, Peter C. “Programming Personalities in Europe.” Datamation 12 (September 1966): 28-9.

Patrick, Robert L. “The Gap in Programming Support.” Datamation 7 (May 1961): 37.

Patterson, A.C. “Requirements for a Generalized Data Base Management System.” In Proceedings of the Fall Joint Computer Conference, 515-22. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1971.

Patterson Hume, J.N. “Development of Systems Software for the Ferut Computer at the University of Toronto, 1952 to 1955.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 16 (Summer 1994): 13-19.

Pearson, Karl M., Jr. “Cataloging Computer Software.” Datamation 19 (October 1973): 87-91.

Peltu, Malcolm. “The Debt that DP Owes to the Pioneers of EDSAC.” Computer Weekly (February 17, 1977): 14-5.

Pentland, Brian T. “Bleeding Edge Epistemology: Practical Problem Solving in Software Support Hot Lines.” In Between Craft and Science: Technical Work in U.S. Settings, eds. Stephen R. Barley and Julian E. Orr. Ithaca, NY: ILR, 1997.

Pentland, Brian T. “Organizing Moves in Software Support Hot Lines.” Administrative Science Quarterly 37 (1992): 527-48.

Perlis, Alan J. “The American Side of the Development of ALGOL.” ACM SIGPLAN Notices 13 (August 1978): 3-14.

Perlis, Alan J. “The American Side of the Development of ALGOL.” In History of Programming Languages, ed. Richard L. Wexelblat, 75-91, 139-47, 161-71. New York: Academic Press, 1981.

Perlis, Alan J. “Identifying and Developing Curricula in Software Engineering.” In Proceedings of the 1969 Spring Joint Computer Conference, 540-1. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1969.

Perlis, Alan J. Papers, 1942-1989, CBl 64. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Perlis, Alan J. “The Synthesis of Algorithmic Systems.” In Proceedings of the 21st ACM National Conference, 1-6. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1966.

Perlis, Alan J. “Thousand Words and Two Thousand Ideas: The 650 at Carnegie.” Annals of the History of Computing 8 (January 1986): 42-6.

Perlis, Alan J., et al., eds. Software Metrics: An Analysis and Evaluation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.

Perreault, Leslie E. and Lucila Ohno-Machado. “Hospital Information System (HIS).” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 788-90. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Perry, Lawrence and Hugh Brett, eds. The Legal Protection of Computer Software. Oxford, England: ESC Publishing, 1981.

Perry, M.N. and W.R. Plugge. “American Airlines ‘SABRE’ Electronic Reservations System.” In Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference, 593-601. New York: Institute of Radio Engineers, 1961.

Pesante, Linda Hutz. “Software Engineering Institute (SEI).” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1611-3. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Pessin, Florence, interview by John A.N. Lee, June 24, 1982, Oral History 52. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Peters, Lawrence. “Managing the Transition to Structured Programming.” Datamation 21 (May 1975): 88-96.

Petersen, Richard M. “TRADAR: Death of a Retailer’s Dream.” Datamation 17 (June 1, 1971): 34-7.

Peterson, T.I. and P.N. Wahi. “Interactive Computer-Based Game for Decision-Making in Ecology.” IBM Journal of Research and Development 16 (March 1972): 154-61.

Peterson, Willard Eugene. Almost Perfect: How a Bunch of Regular Guys Built WordPerfect Corporation. Rocklin, CA: Prima Pub., 1994.

Petras, Dorothy Donahue and Susan Scarpelli. “Computers, Medical Malpractice, and the Ghost of T.J. Hooper.” Rutgers Journal of Computers and the Law 5 (1975): 15-49.

Petre, Peter. “The Man Who Keeps the Bloom on Lotus.” Fortune (June 10, 1985): 92-100.

“Petty Patents in the Federal Republic of Germany: A Solution to the Problem of Computer Software Protection?” Southwestern University Law Review 8 (1976): 888-909.

Pfeifer, Michael R. “Legal Protection of Computer Software: An Update.” Orange County Bar Journal 5 (Fall 1978): 226-47.

Phelps, Charles. Selective Guide to Literature on Computer Graphics. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Engineering Education, 1997.

Philippakis, Andreas S. “Programming Language Usage.” Datamation 19 (October 1973): 109-14.

Phillips, Charles A. Papers, 1906-1985, CBI 39. Charles Babbage Institute. University of Minnesota.

Phillips, Charles A., et al. “Recollections on the Early Days of COBOL and CODASYL.” Annals of the History of Computing 7 (October 1985): 304-15.

Phister, Montgomery. Data Processing: Technology and Economics. Santa Monica, CA: Digital Press and Santa Monica Publishing Company, 1979.

Pickering, Andrew. “Cybernetics and the Mangle: Ashby, Beer, and Pask.” Social Studies of Science 32 (June 2002): 413-37.

Pierce, John R. “Claude E. Shannon.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 1570-1. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Pierce, John R. “Information Theory.” In Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 4th ed., eds. Anthony Ralston, Edwin D. Reilly, and David Hemmendinger, 869-70. London: Nature Publishing Group, 2000.

Pierce, Kay H. “Copyright Protection for Computer Programs.” Copyright Law Symposium 30 (1983): 1-32.

Piscopo, Joseph A. “Pansophic Systems.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 24 (January-March 2002): 39-41.

“The Policy Implications of Granting Patent Protection to Computer Software: An Economic Analysis.” Vanderbilt Law Review 37 (January 1984): 147-81.

Pollack, Andrew. “Computers: The Action’s in Software.” New York Times (November 8, 1981): section 3, p. 1.

Polyak, B.T. “History of Mathematical Programming in the USSR: Analyzing the Phenomenon.” Mathematical Programming 91 (2002): 401-16.

Pomeroy, John W. “A Guide to Programming Tools and Techniques.” IBM Systems Journal 11 (1972): 234-54.

Pooch, Udo W. “Computer Graphics, Interactive Techniques, and Image Processing, 1970-1975: A Bibliography.” Computer 9 (August 1976): 46-64.

Poole, Steven. Trigger Happy: The Inner Life of Videogames. Fourth Estate, 2000.

Pope, Michael Alan and Patrick Bruce Pope. “Protection of Proprietary Interests in Computer Software.” Alabama Law Review 30 (Spring 1979): 527-60.

Pope, Stephen Travis. The Well-Tempered Object: Musical Applications of Object-Oriented Software Technology. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press, 1991.

Popper, H.R. “Technology and Programming: Is It a Problem in Definitions?” APLA Quarterly Journal 5 (1977): 13-29.

Postley, John A. Computers and People. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.

Postley, John A. “File Management Application Programs.” Data Processing Management Association Quarterly 2 (July 1966): 20-9.

Postley, John A. “Mark IV: Evolution of the Software Product, a Memoir.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (January-March 1998): 43-50.

Postley, John A. “The Mark IV System.” Datamation 14 (January 1968): 28-30.

Postley, John A. “A Position on IBM.” Datamation 19 (February 1973): 165-6.

Postley, John A. “Random Access File Management.” Datamation 9 (December 1963): 24.

Postley, John A. and T. Dwight Buettell. “Generalized Information Retrieval and Listing System.” Datamation 8 (December 1962): 22-5.

Potter, Robert J. “Electronic Mail.” Science 195 (March 18, 1977): 1160-4.

Pouzin, Louis. “The Communications Networks Snarl.” Datamation 21 (December 1975): 70-2.

Prasinos, Nicholas. “Legal Protection of Software via Copyright.” APLA Quarterly Journal 8 (1980): 252-72.

Prasinos, Nicholas. “Worldwide Protection of Computer Programs by Copyright.” Publishing, Entertainment, Advertising, and Allied Fields Law Quarterly 13 (Winter 1975): 323-51.

Prasinos, Nicholas. “Worldwide Protection of Computer Programs by Copyright.” Rutgers Journal of Computers and the Law 4 (1974): 42-85.

Presser, Leon. “Software Management.” In Proceedings of the ACM, 283-5. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1975.

Presser, Leon. “Structured Languages.” In Proceedings of the 1975 National Computer Conference and Exposition, 291-2. Montvale, NJ: AFIPS Press, 1975.

Presser, Leon and John R. White. “Linkers and Loaders.” Computing Surveys 4 (September 1972): 149-67.

Price, Robert M., interview by Mollie Price, June 9, 1983, Oral History 308. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

PriceWaterhouseCoopers. Forecasting a Robust Future: An Economic Study of the U.S. Software Industry. Business Software Alliance, 1999.

“The Production of Better Software.” EDP Analyzer 17 (February 1979): 1-13.

“Professionalism: Coming or Not?” EDP Analyzer 14 (March 1976): 1-12.

“The ‘Professional’ Programmer: Some Industry Opinions.” Data Processing Magazine 12 (January 1970): 18-21.

“Program Design Techniques.” EDP Analyzer 17 (March 1979): 1-13.

“Progress in Software Engineering, part I.” EDP Analyzer 16 (February 1978): 1-13.

“Progress in Software Engineering, part II.” EDP Analyzer 16 (March 1978): 1-13.

“Progress Toward Easier Programming.” EDP Analyzer 13 (September 1975): 1-13.

“Project Management Systems.” EDP Analyzer 14 (September 1976): 1-13.

“Protection of Computer Programs: Resurrection of the Standard.” Notre Dame Lawyer 50 (December 1974): 333-45.

“Protection of Computer Software: A Hard Problem.” Drake Law Review 26 (1976-77): 180-98.

“The Protection of Property Rights in Computer Software.” Akron Law Review 14 (Summer 1980): 85-102.

“The Protection of Property Rights in Computer Software.” Publishing, Entertainment, Advertising, and Allied Fields Law Quarterly 19 (1980-1): 265-87.

“Protection of Proprietary Rights in Computer Programs: A ‘Basic’ Formula for Debugging the System.” St. John’s Law Review 57 (Fall 1982): 92-126.

Puckett, Allen W. “Protecting Computer Programs.” Datamation 13 (November 1967): 55-60.

Pugh, Emerson. Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and Its Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.

Pugh, Emerson. “Origins of Software Bundling.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 24 (January-March 2002): 57-8.

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